GSP is not only a matter which concerns scientists. Also the administrators in scientific institutions have a responsibility, not least because a serious infringement of a collaborator also fires back on the reputation of the institution. It is a prerequisite that the administrators also understand the scope of GSP, provide for the instruments to maintain it and take proper measures to handle allegations of misconduct.

Therefore this manual comprises also guidelines for Good Research Organization, which are mainly derived from the German recommendations mentioned in the preface(14). The rules presented especially concern those affecting the professional social control among scientists.

However, the style of the overall management of scientific institutions is also an important element of the social atmosphere in science and it deserves some attention.

Over the 20th century 'management' in the society at large and in particular in business, developed into a profession of its own, which requires both study and training. And it also became subject of scientific investigation. (For a survey of the literature of its founders, see 'Writers on Organization'(15).) It is the science of meeting objectives in an organization, big or small, through planning, organizing, directing and controlling, of problem solving and decision making. Since managers are always dealing with people, superiors, peers and subordinates, ethics are also strongly involved.

The latter became an important issue in science management after the student's revolts in 1968 and 1969 in Berkeley, Paris, Berlin, Amsterdam and many other places. How hierarchical or democratic should a research institution be? Among scientists the opinions are still diverse, but seldom have a (social) scientific base. Many scientists who rose to the rank of 'superior' never read a book or manual on management. Which is quite remarkable for professionals who set a high value on professionalism and competence? The view that a scientific institution cannot be run like a business or factory is still widespread. This makes some sense if we view the level in the organizations where the highest creativity turns up. Certainly in the past this was located in the factory at the top, in the scientific organization at the bottom. But with increasing level of education of the factory laborers, their say on the policy of the enterprise was learned to be appreciated. As a result some convergence can be observed between management styles in business and science. And this concerns especially the responsibility of each person in our current organizational structures which are hybrids of hierarchical and democratized communities, and this in relationship to the decision-making process.

It is considered to be Good Managerial Practice to delegate responsibilities of different scope to the different functionaries in an organizational structure. In the managerial jargon the meaning of taking responsibility is that one accepts the task to fulfill an objective which requires decision making. But managers are, like scientists, always making mistakes, probably even more because the signals to react on are more difficult to qualify than scientific data. It is also GMP to allow managers to make mistakes, but under one important condition. If a manager recognizes he made a mistake he is expected to report it in time and not to cover it up. In short, to take responsibility also means the obligation to account for the decision making.

In paragraph 1.3 the basic principle of GSP was phrased as: “being honest towards oneself and towards others. Similarly the basic principle of GMP can be written as: “being responsible towards oneself and towards others.”

In practice the key to GMP is good and timely communication among all involved in reaching a certain objective, superiors, peers and subordinates. It does not mean necessarily democratic decision-making by counting votes. Leadership is indispensable, also in science

Leadership of a research group requires other skills than leadership at the top of a large research organization, e.g., the university or faculty, which is called the 'administration' in the English language. Tension between the two types, scientists and administrators, rises frequently, usually due to differences in primary training. Mutual respect grows when the principle of accountability, bound to responsibility, is accepted as a general lead.

–> 1.9 Pseudo-Science