Universities and research institutes shall develop standards for mentorship and make them binding for the heads of the individual scientific working units.

Working groups as a rule consist of a mix of older and younger, experienced and less experienced scientists. Leading a group therefore includes the responsibility of ensuring that every younger member of the group – graduate students in particular, but also advanced undergraduates and younger postdocs – receives adequate supervision. Each one must have a senior partner primarily responsible for his or her progress In fields where active groups are in intensive competition with each other,

there is a real danger, particularly for younger group members, of situations of real or supposed overburdening. A healthy communication within a group and high quality supervision are the best means to prevent younger or more experienced group members from slipping into dishonest practices. Leading a group includes the responsibility to guarantee such conditions at all times.It is good practice for graduate students, beside their primary mentor, to be supervised by two additional experienced scientists who are available for advice and help and, if need be, for mediating in conflict situations, and who also discuss the progress of the young researchers' work with them at annual intervals. They should be accessible locally, but should not all belong to the same working group, not even necessarily to the same faculty or institution. At least one of them should be chosen by the graduate student.

–> 4.4 Safe guarding of quality in research